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Aquafeed in Korea

Tuesday, October 19, 2004


blue diamond KOREA-US AQUACULTURE -> Feeds & Nutrition-> Feeds         


Feeds

Since the middle of 1980s, the increasing use of feeds has been the main method of increasing production for all the finfish species. Trash fish provide the major feed type for marine finfish culture. Until a few years ago, almost all marine fish farmers used entirely fresh feed, ground or minced, consisting of a variety of marine fish right after catch or in frozen state. Mackerel and jack mackerel were extensively used in fish farms. Sand lance was only used at some fish farms, but in this case the fish is cut into pieces and directly given to fish. Raw fish flesh feed (MP feed) is highly unstable in water causing serious pollution in the water around. Use of raw fish is also highly costly and sometimes its availability is limited. In recent years farmers have been adding compound feeds into their MP feed and the utilization percentage of compound was increasing (Table 1). The inclusion of compound feed, in dry state, was 2% in 1988, and 1993 it was 9% with 91% of raw fish (mostly frozen, in wet state), and now more compound feed is used. Meanwhile, the use of formulated feeds are greatly expanded for freshwater and marine fish species recently.

Making moist pellet (MP)
Making moist pellet (MP)
 

 Freshwater extruded pellet  (floating)
Freshwater extruded
     pellet  (floating)
 

Mariculture extruded pellet (sinking)
Mariculture
extruded pellet
(sinking)

Practical fish feeds were prepared by the fish farmers themselves until 1981 in Korea. Commercial carp feed was firstly manufactured by Daehan Sugar Co. feed mill under the order of a fish farmer, Horim Fisheries Co., based on a formulation which used ingredients available in the domestic market. In 1982, the company began to produce commercial fish feeds, and thereafter many other companies joined the production of fish feeds. There were 16 registered fish feed manufacturers in Korea producing 56,540 metric tons of fish feeds in 1988, and in 2002 the number of registered fish feed manufacturers was 25 producing a total of 104,484 metric tons of fish feeds(Korea Feed Ingredients Association, 2003).

In 1993, carp feed occupied more than half of the fish feed production with 52,215 metric tons followed by 13,371 metric tons for eels and 11,527 metric tons for trout. Marine fish feeds, for flounder and rockfish, amounted to 6,146 and 625 metric tons, respectively. However, the production of carp feed was only 2,315 metric tons in 2002, and the production of fish feed for flounder and rockfish greatly increased to 16,363 and 19,110 metric tons, respectively.

Moist pellets containing higher amount of compound feed keep much higher water stability. It seems desirable to gradually shift to extruded pellets from the present moist pellets, but with great care if there appears any setback in growth rate of the fish under rearing. If one can use exclusively extruded pellets, the farmers not only help reduce pollution loads with reduced disease outbreak, but also could save the running cost significantly.

Table showing Aquafeed consumption in Korea* in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001.

(Unit : thousands M/T)

Year Feed

1998

1999

2000

2001

Raw fish

Sub total

240(88)**

268(86)

287(83)

300(81)

Domestic

208(87)

148(55)

201(70)

200(67)

Imported

30(13)

120(45)

86(30)

100(33)

Formulated Feed

Sub total

33(12)

43(14)

57(17)

69(19)

Mash

16(50)

24(55)

34(60)

41(60)

Pellet

16(50)

19(45)

23(40)

28(40)

Total

273

311

344

369

*Sources : Ministry of Maritime Affairs & Fisheries (1998∼2001)
**( ) : Percent

Table showing Aquafeed production of different companies in Korea (2002)*

(Unit : M/T)

Fish Companies

Flounder

Rockfish

Shrimp

Carp

Catfish

Tilapia

Trout

Eel

Loach

Others

Total

Wuseong Feeds

3,370

2,697

3,787

-

3,908

-

1,837

382

711

7,489

24,189

Cheil Feeds

2,854

3,401

3,466

368

1,591

278

-

-

2,810

954

15,722

Koryo Special Feeds

2,727

896

1,194

448

1,589

180

658

394

1,685

968

10,738

Taehan Sugar

947

2,018

-

139

767

223

1,775

1,078

1076

1,107

9,130

Purina

276

3,084

1,656

418

1,574

-

1,640

892

136

1,357

11,033

Taehan Feeds

2

3,328

-

534

1,316

-

889

-

390

-

6,458

Daesang Feeds

603

2,005

-

167

402

-

149

846

385

1,560

6,117

Cheil sugar

2,086

1,153

388

119

1,042

5

142

-

2469

4,769

12,173

Shinchon Feeds

1,182

383

1,035

67

5

76

-

22

-

149

2,920

Seohae Feeds

5

21

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

105

131

Haman nonghyup

36

125

-

57

93

-

4

-

-

110

425

Fisheries Co-op Feeds

2,266

-

-

-

-

-

-

3181

-

-

5,448

Total

16,363

19,110

11,526

2,315

12,288

762

7,094

6,795

9662

18,567

104,484

*Sources : Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry (2002)  

 

Table showing Aquafeed production for different fish species in Korea* for 1993 through 2002. 

(Unit : M/T)

Year

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Flounder

6,146

12,795

21,685

24,864

22,729

13,207

16,571

19,524

24,047

16,363

Rockfish

625

767

3,641

6,336

15,742

14,899

14,871

20,994

28,605

19,110

Shrimp

1,776

2,971

3,046

4,440

5,004

5,803

6,993

9,479

13,972

11,526

Carp

52,215

58,835

57,874

43,525

34,148

13,323

6,348

5,414

3,543

2,315

Catfish

-

-

-

12,448

11,859

10,642

16,545

19,294

16,081

12,288

Tilapia

955

928

1,610

2,474

3,414

1,095

354

1,239

1,196

762

Trout

11,527

12,055

14,543

10,321

9,253

6,034

6,507

7,916

7,336

7,094

Eel

13,371

11,872

10,404

10,926

12,142

7,221

5,474

7,087

7,420

6,795

Loach

2,629

2,515

2,929

3,080

4,982

4,963

6,503

7,258

8,840

9,662

Others

2,391

2,406

5,832

928

2,204

3,038

4,299

8,475

13,053

18,489

Total

91,635

105,144

121,564

119,342

121,477

80,225

84,465

106,680

124,093

104,404

 *Sources : Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry (1993∼2002)

This page is from the Korea/U.S. aquaculture web site and is one result of the Arrangement for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in Integrated Coastal and Ocean Resources Management signed in 2000 between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States of America and the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Korea. One of the goals set forth in the first collaborative meetings between aquaculture participants from both countries in this bilateral effort was to improve aquaculture data and information exchange between the two countries. This web site is one tool created to meet that goal.

This web site is hosted at the NOAA Central Library and developed through the efforts of experts from the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI) under the Korea Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (MOMAF).
Visit the Home Page to view the full site: http://www.lib.noaa.gov/korea/

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