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Glossary P-R

P

Packer — A machine used for the filling of sacks.

Paddleworm — A conveyor with separate reversible blades to run right or left hand.

Palm Kernal Expeller — By-product of oil manufacture, obtained by pressing from palm nuts, from which as much as possible of the hard shell has been removed, of the following species of oil palm: Elaeis Guineensis Jacq Corozo oleifera (HBK) L H Bailey (Elaeis Melanococca-auct).

Palm Kernel Extracted — By-product of oil manufacture, obtained by extraction from palm nuts of the species of oil palm from which as much as possible of the hard shell has been removed.

Palm Kernel Oil — The oil obtained from the kernel of the oil palm fruit. Its chemical composition is quite different from that of palm oil, which is obtained from the flesh of the fruit. Palm kernel oil is a lauric type, similar to coconut oil.

Palm Oil — Oil derived from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palm species Elaeis guineensis. In Malaysia, the most common cultivated fruit form is the high yielding hybrid of Dura X Pisifera known as Tenera.

Palm Olein — The liquid, more unsaturated fraction separated from palm oil after crystallization at a controlled temperature. The olein consists of a more homogeneous mixture of triglycerides and has properties and uses which are different from those of the original oil.

Palm Stearin — The more saturated and solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil after crystallization at a controlled temperature. It is a coproduct of the production of palm olein.

Pathogen — A micro-organism that can cause disease in man or animals.

Pea Meal — The meal obtained by grinding commercially pure peas, as grown of varieties Pisum sativum or Pisum arvense.

Pea Middlings — By-product obtained during the manufacture of pea-meal Pisum sativum L. It consists principally of particles of endosperm, and to a lesser extent, of skins.

Peanut — See Groundnut

Pellet — Agglomerated feed formed by compacting and forcing through die openings by a mechanical process.

Pellet Mill — Machine for producing pellets.

Pericarp — A bran skin.

Pneumatic Conveying — The movement of mill stocks by use of controlled air currents as opposed to mechanical means.

Pollard — Small Bran

Popped — The expansion of whole or cracked grain by heat. It may also entaol pressure.

Porous — Having pores, or small holes.

Posser — A bumping device to assist filling of sacks.

Potato Protein, Dried — By-product of starch manufacture composed mainly of protein substances obtained by the separation of starch.

Potato Pulp, Dried — Dried by-product of the manufacture of potato starch.

Potato Starch — Virtually pure potato starch.

Potato Starch, Pregelatinized — Virtually pure potato starch greatly expanded by appropriate heat treatment.

Potato Starch, Pregelatinized, Partially Hydrolyze — Virtually pure potato starch, greatly expanded and partially hydrolysed.

Potatoes, Flaked — Product obtained by drying potatoes Solanum tuberesum L., whether or not peeled, which have been steamed or boiled and crushed.

Poultry By-Product Meal — Product made from ground, rendered clean parts of the poultry carcass, exclusive of feathers.

Poultry Waste — The waste from intensive poultry units which consist principally of excreta, with or without litter; and which has been suitably treated for use as a feeding stuff.

Poultry Waste, Dried — (Products with a fat content of 12 per cent should be described as ‘rich in fat’) Product obtained by drying and grinding waste from slaughtered poultry; it should be substantially free of feathers.

Premix — A uniform mixture of one or more micro-ingredients with diluent or carrier.

Press — See Pellet Press

Pressure Dust Collectors — A machine into which a fan delivers its air for cleaning purposes.

Prime Mover — Initial source of motive power.

Protein — Complex organic combinations of amino acids.

Puffed — The expansion or whole, cracked or processed grain by pressure and heating.

Q

Quarter Twist Belta — Belt communicating motion to a shaft at right angles to the driver.

R

Rape Seed — Seed of colza, Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera, of Indian sarson Brassica napus L. var. glauca and of rape Brassica campestris L. ssp. oleifera.

Rape Seed Expeller — By-product of oil manufacture, obtained by pressing from seeds of rape.

Rape Seed, Extracted — By-product of oil manufacture, obtained by extraction from rape seeds.

Ration — The amount of the total feed provided to an animal over a 24 hour period.

Rice Bran, White — By-product of the second polishing of husked rice. It cosists principally of particles of endosperm, of the aleurone layer and of germ.

Rice Germ (Brown), Extracted — By-product of oil manufacture, obtained by extraction from germ of rice to which parts of the endosperm and tegument stil adhere.

Rice Germ Expeller — By-product of oil manufacture, obtained by pressing from germ of rice Oryza sativa L. to which parts of the endosperm and tegument still adhere.

Rice Gluten — Dried by-product of the manufacture fo rich starch consisting mainly of gluten.

Rice Starch — Virtually pure rich starch..

Rice Starch, Puffed — Virtually pure rice starch, greatly expanded by appropriate heat treatment.

Rice, Broken — By-product of the preparation of polished or glazed rice. it consists principally of under-sized or broken grains.

Rice, Fodder, Ground — Product obtained by grinding fodder rice consisting either of green, chalky or unripe grains, sifted out during the milling of husked rice, or of normally husked grains which are yellow or spotted.

Rye Bran — By-product of flour manufacture, obtained from screened rye Secale cereale L. It consists principally of graments of the outer skins, and of particles of grain from which most of the endosperm has been removed.

Rye Feed — By-product of flour manufacture, obtained from screened rye. It consists principally of framents of the outer skins, and of particles of grain from which more of the endosperm has been removed than in rye bran.

Rye Screenings (Rye Meal) — By-product of flour manufacture, obtained from screened rye. It consists principally of particles of endosperm, with fine fragments of the outer skins and some grain waste (rye bran).

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