Advertisement

Reports

Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed fish and crustaceans Trends and prospects

This paper reviews the dietary feeding practices employed for the production of the major cultured fed species, the total global production and market availability of the major feed ingredient sources used and the major constraints to feed ingredient usage, and recommends approaches to feed ingredient selection and usage for the major species of cultivated fish and crustacean. Emphasis is placed on the need for major producing countries to maximize the use of locally available feed-grade ingredient sources, and, in particular, to select and use those nutritionally sound and safe feed ingredient sources whose production and growth can keep pace with the 8 to 10 percent annual average annual growth of the fed finfish and crustacean aquaculture sector. Albert G.J. Tacon FAO Consultant Hawaii, United States of America Mohammad R. Hasan Aquaculture Officer Aquaculture Service FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Rome, Italy and Marc Metian Littoral Environment and Societies University of La Rochelle La Rochelle, France FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2011

January 26, 2012


Abstract

The rise into global prominence and rapid growth of finfish and crustacean aquaculture has been due, in part, to the availability and on-farm provision of feed inputs within the major producing countries. More than 46 percent of the total global aquaculture production in 2008 was dependent upon the supply of external feed inputs. For the aquaculture sector to maintain its current average growth rate of 8 to 10 percent per year to 2025, the supply of nutrient and feed inputs will have to grow at a similar rate.

This had been readily attainable when the industry was young. It may not be the case anymore as the sector has grown into a major consumer of and competitor for feed resources. This paper reviews the dietary feeding practices employed for the production of the major cultured fed species, the total global production and market availability of the major feed ingredient sources used and the major constraints to feed ingredient usage, and recommends approaches to feed ingredient selection and usage for the major species of cultivated fish and crustacean. Emphasis is placed on the need for major producing countries to maximize the use of locally available feed-grade ingredient sources, and, in particular, to select and use those nutritionally sound and safe feed ingredient sources whose production and growth can keep pace with the 8 to 10 percent annual average annual growth of the fed finfish and crustacean aquaculture sector.

Β 

Contents

Preparation of this document iii

Abstract iv

List of tables and figures vi

Contributors viii

Abbreviations and acronyms ix

Executive summary x

1. Introduction 1

2. Current feeds and feeding practices 3

2.1 Major fed fish and crustacean species 3

2.2 In-country fed species production and feeding practices 7

2.3 Global aquaculture feed production by major species group and country 16

3. Feed ingredient production and availability 21

3.1 Animal nutrient sources 21

3.2 Plant nutrient sources 32

3.3 Microbial ingredient sources 50

4. Current levels of feed ingredient usage and constraints 51

4.1 Continued use of fishmeal and fish oil as major dietary animal protein

and lipid sources 51

4.2 Increased use of terrestrial animal protein meals and oils as dietary

nutrient sources 54

4.3 Continued and increased use of plant protein meals and oils as dietary

nutrient sources 61

4.4 Ingredient competition with other users 62

4.5 Growing importance of feed and food safety 65

5. Recommended approaches to feed ingredient selection and use 67

5.1 Reduce country dependence upon imported feed ingredient sources 67

5.2 Select feed ingredients that can be sustainably produced and grow

with the sector 68

5.3 Minimize environmental and ecosystem impact of feeds and

feeding regimes 68

5.4 Give special attention to small-scale farmers using farm-made/

semi-commercial aquafeeds 69

References 71

Annexes

1. Global production of finfish and crustaceans 79

2. Fed cultured species production by country 87

vi

TABLES

1. Top 20 country producers of fed fish and crustacean species in 2008

2. Top 53 major fed cultured fish and crustacean species/species groups

by main country producers in 2008

3. Estimated global aquaculture production and use of commercial aquafeeds,

1995–2020

4. Major country producers of commercial aquaculture feeds, 2007–2010

5. Total reported production of aquatic animal protein meals and lipids

6. IFFO estimate of global fishmeal production derived from fisheries by-products,

2007

7. Total reported production of terrestrial animal protein meals and lipids, 2008

8. Estimated global production and trade of major agricultural food/feed

commodities, 2008/09

9. Global production and growth of major oilseed crops, 1995–2009

10. Country responses regarding feed ingredient usage for major cultivated

species groups

11. Estimated global use and demand for fishmeal and fish oil, 1995–2020

12. Biofuel production by country, 2007

FIGURES

1. Total global production of fed fish and crustacean species by major FAO species

grouping, 1980–2008

2. Growth of fed freshwater fish species, 1980–2008

3. Growth of fed crustacean species, 1980–2008

4. Growth of fed diadromous fish species, 1980–2008

5. Growth of fed marine fish species, 1980–2008

6. Estimated global production of commercial aquaculture feeds by major species

grouping, 2008

7. Historical development of feeds in the Norwegian salmon industry in relation to

prevailing technologies and typical inclusion levels of crude proteins, digestible

energy and digestible protein levels, 1960–2000

8. Total capture fisheries and aquaculture production and volume of the catch

destined for reduction and other non-food uses, 1970–2008

9. Major country producers of fishmeal and fish oil, 2007

10. Historical production trend of fishmeal and fish oil, 1962–2008

11. Major exporters of fishmeal and fish oil, 2007

12. Major importers of fishmeal and fish oil, 2007

13. Composition of rendered animal protein meal by meal type in Australia, 2008

14. Annual production of animal protein meals in the United States, 2003–2008

15. Annual production of animal fats and grease in the United States, 2003–2008

16. Total global production of cereals by commodity, 1995–2009

17. Composition of commodities in global production of cereals, 2009

18. Top cereal producer countries by commodity, 2009

19. Total global production of cereals by country, 1995–2009

20. Top cereal importers and exporters, 2008/09

21. Production of corn feed by-products from alcohol biorefineries

in the United States, 1990/91 to 2008/09

22. Global production of major oilseed crops, 1995–2009

23. Composition of commodities in global production of oilseed crops, 2009

24. Global production of soybean oilseed crop by country, 1995–2009

25. Global production of soybean oilseed crop by country, 2009

26. Global production of major oilseed meals, 2005/06 to 2008/09

27. Global production of major oilseed meals by commodity, 2008/09

28. Global production of major oilseed oils, 2005/06 to 2008/09

29. Global production of palm oil by country, 2008/09

30. Global production of soybean oil by country, 2008/09

31. Top agricultural exports by quantity from the United States, 2007

32. Top agricultural imports by quantity in China, 2007

33. Top agricultural imports by quantity in the European Union, 2007

34. Global production of dry peas by country, 2009

35. Global production of lupins by country, 2009

36. Estimated global consumption of fishmeal by major aquaculture

species group, 2008

37. Estimated global consumption of fish oil by major aquaculture species group, 2008

38. Estimated total global consumption of fishmeal and fish oil by major

aquaculture species group, 2008

39. Variation in price of fair average quality Peru fishmeal, January 2006

to October 2009

40. Variation in price of FAQ fishmeal and soybean meal, 2006 to 2010

41. United States and European Union production of biodiesel, 2001–2008

42. United States corn destined for ethanol production, 1988/89 to 2009/10

Β 

Authors:

Β 

Albert G.J. Tacon

FAO Consultant

Hawaii, United States of America

Β 

Mohammad R. Hasan

Aquaculture Officer

Aquaculture Service

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

Rome, Italy

Β 

and

Marc Metian

Littoral Environment and Societies

University of La Rochelle

La Rochelle, France

Published by: FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2011

Download as PDF

Advertisement

Latest Magazine

JOB BOARD