USDA World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, March 9, 2012

The U.S. season-average soybean price range for 2011/12 is projected at $11.40 to $12.60 per bushel, up 30 cents on both ends of the range. Soybean meal prices are forecast at $310 to $340 per short ton, up 20 dollars on both ends of the range. Soybean oil prices are forecast at 50.5 to 54.5 cents per pound, unchanged from last month
March 12, 2012

WHEAT:   U.S. wheat ending stocks for 2011/12 are projected 20 million bushels lower this month as lower food use is more than offset by higher exports.   Projected food use is lowered 5 million bushels reflecting the latest flour production data reported by the North American Millers’ Association.  Exports are projected 25 million bushels higher based on shipments and sales to date.  Projected exports of Hard Red Spring and White wheat are each raised 10 million bushels.  Projected Durum exports are raised 5 million bushels.  Prices received by producers for the 2011/12 marketing year are projected at $7.15 to $7.45 per bushel,  unchanged from last month. 

Global wheat supplies for 2011/12 are nearly unchanged with lower China and Bangladesh beginning stocks offsetting higher production for Australia.  Beginning stocks are lowered 1.0 million tons for China with an increase in food, seed, and industrial use for 2010/11.  Australia production for 2011/12 is raised 1.2 million tons in line with the latest official estimate by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES). 

Global wheat trade is raised for 2011/12 with higher imports for a number of countries.  The biggest increase is for Iran, up 0.8 million tons, reflecting recent purchases and expected deliveries before the end of the local April-March marketing year.  Imports are raised 0.3 million tons each for Algeria, South Korea, and Uzbekistan.  Smaller increases are made for Azerbaijan, Chile, Georgia, and Angola.  Imports are lowered 0.2 million tons for Syria.  The largest export increase is for the United States.  Exports are also increased for Australia, Brazil, and Kazakhstan, each up 0.5 million tons.  Smaller increases are made for Turkey and Serbia.  At the projected 142.9 million tons, global exports are just 0.6 million tons short of the 2008/09 record.  

Global wheat consumption for 2011/12 is raised 3.5 million tons mostly on higher food, seed, and industrial use in China and higher wheat feeding in Australia, Iran, and South Korea. Partly offsetting are reductions in EU-27 wheat feeding and food, seed, and industrial use.  

Global ending stocks for 2011/12 are projected 3.5 million tons lower, mostly reflecting a similar sized reduction for China.  EU-27 ending stocks are projected 1.5 million tons higher, but changes in a number of other countries, including the United States, offset the EU-27 increase. 

COARSE GRAINS:  U.S. corn, sorghum, and barley balance sheets for 2011/12 are unchanged this month.  Oats imports for 2011/12 are projected 5 million bushels higher with larger expected shipments from Canada.  Projected U.S. oats ending stocks are increased by the same amount.  The projected ranges for the season-average corn and sorghum farm prices are both narrowed 10 cents on each end to $5.90 to $6.50 per bushel and $5.80 to  $6.40 per bushel, respectively.  The barley farm price range is lowered 10 cents on the top end WASDE-504-2 of the range to $5.20 to $5.50 per bushel.  The oats farm price range is raised 10 cents on the bottom end of the range to $3.35 to $3.55 per bushel.  Global coarse grain supplies for 2011/12 are projected 1.6 million tons higher with production increases for Brazil corn and India corn and millet.  Partly offsetting are reductions in sorghum output for India and Argentina and corn output for South Africa and Ecuador.  Brazil corn production is raised 1 million tons on higher expected area for the second crop, which is  planted following soybeans.  India corn and millet production are raised 0.5 million tons and 1.5 million tons, respectively, in line with the latest government crop assessments.  India  sorghum production is lowered 0.7 million tons mostly reflecting lower expected area as the  crop faces significant competition from cotton, soybeans, and pulses.  Argentina sorghum production is lowered 0.2 million tons with lower expected yields.  South Africa corn production is lowered 0.5 million tons as higher reported area is more than offset by reduced yield prospects.  Below-normal rainfall and above-normal temperatures throughout South Africa’s maize triangle adversely affected pollination and early grain fill during February.  Corn production for Ecuador is lowered 0.3 million tons as excess rains lower area and yields. 

Global coarse grain trade for 2011/12 is raised with increases for corn and barley.  Corn imports are raised for EU-27, Ecuador, and Peru, but lowered for Malaysia.  Corn exports are raised for Brazil and India.  Barley imports are raised for Iran and China.  Barley exports are raised for Australia.  Lower sorghum exports for Argentina are offset by higher expected shipments from Australia.   

Global coarse grain consumption for 2011/12 is raised 2.2 million tons mostly on higher corn feeding in EU-27 and India, and higher millet use in India.  EU-27 corn feeding is raised 1.0 million tons as corn is expected to replace higher priced wheat in animal rations.  India corn and millet feeding are raised a combined 1.0 million tons.  Millet food use is also raised 0.6 million tons for India.  Partly offsetting these increases are reductions in sorghum food use in India, barley feeding in Australia, and corn feeding in Malaysia.  Global coarse grain ending stocks for 2011/12 are lowered slightly, with 0.8-million-ton reduction in projected world corn stocks. 

RICE:  Small changes are made to the U.S. 2011/12 rice supply and use balances.  The 2011/12 all rice import forecast is raised 1.0 million cwt to 20.0 million, based largely on the pace of imports reflected in the U.S. Bureau of the Census import data through December—all  in long-grain rice.  The increase in rice imports is largely due to a noticeable increase in fragrant rice imported from Thailand and India.  Although the all rice export forecast is unchanged at 89.0 million cwt, combined medium- and short-grain rice is increased 1.0 million cwt to 32.0 million, and conversely, the long-grain projection is lowered the same amount to  57.0 million.  The rough rice export forecast is lowered 1.0 million cwt to 31.0 million, which is  offset by an increase in the combined milled and brown export forecast to 58.0 million (rough equivalent basis).   All rice ending stocks are projected at 40.5 million cwt, up 1.0 million from a month ago.  Long-grain rice ending stocks are projected at 23.6 million cwt, up 2.0 million from last month, and combined medium- and short-grain rice stocks are forecast at 14.2 million, down 1.0 million from a month ago.  

The 2011/12 long-grain season-average price is projected at $13.20 to $13.80 per cwt, down 20 cents on each end of the range from last month. The combined medium- and short-grain price is projected at $15.40 to $16.00 per cwt, up 20 cents on each end of the range. The all WASDE-504-3 rice season-average price is forecast at $13.90 to $14.50 per cwt, unchanged from a month ago.  Global rice prices from most sources have been trending down during the past month due largely to lackluster import demand and aggressive pricing by India. 

USDA’s rice Interagency Commodity Estimates Committee recently reviewed foreign rice milling rates in the USDA global supply and use database for the period 2006/07 through 2011/12.  The Foreign Agricultural Service staff of USDA at U.S. embassies around the world provided actual milling yields, milling practices, and milling technology in an effort to better calibrate the average milling yield for a given country.  Some countries indicated significant increases in the milling yields: Burma increased from 58 percent to 64 percent, Nigeria increased 60 percent to 63 percent, and Turkey increased 60 percent to 67 percent.  The average milling yields used for India and China are unchanged at 66.7 percent, and 70.0  percent, respectively.  Most of the changes are small.  Average milling yields were changed for about 40 countries. 

Global 2011/12 rice production and consumption are up more than 2.5 million tons from a month ago, while trade and ending stocks changes are less than 0.3 million.  A large portion of the changes in global production and consumption can be attributed to the changes made to global milling rates as described in the preceding paragraph.  The change in Burma’s milling rate led to a 10 percent increase in forecast milled production for 2011/12–up 1.1 million tons.  

India’s rice crop is raised 0.75 million tons to a record 102.75 million based on official data from the government of India.  Conversely, Brazil’s crop is lowered 0.14 million tons due to the effects of drought in Rio Grande do Sul, an important rice-growing State.  The increase in global consumption is due primarily to increases for Burma, Egypt, and India.  The changes in global trade are small.  Global 2011/12 ending stocks are raised 0.2 million tons to 100.3 million, up 2.5 million from the previous year, and the largest since 2002/03. 

OILSEEDS:  U.S. soybean supply and use projections for 2011/12 are mostly unchanged this month.  U.S. soybean exports are unchanged at 1.275 billion bushels as reduced supplies in South America raise prices, reducing global imports.  Although soybean meal exports and domestic use are raised this month, soybean crush remains unchanged due to a higher soybean meal extraction rate.  Food use of soybean oil is reduced reflecting increased imports of canola oil and palm oil.  Soybean oil stocks are projected at 2.4 billion pounds, up 100 million from last month. 

The U.S. season-average soybean price range for 2011/12 is projected at $11.40 to $12.60 per bushel, up 30 cents on both ends of the range.  Soybean meal prices are forecast at $310 to $340 per short ton, up 20 dollars on both ends of the range. Soybean oil prices are forecast at 50.5 to 54.5 cents per pound, unchanged from last month. 

Global oilseed production for 2011/12 is projected at 445.7 million tons, down 6.7 million from  last month.  Foreign production, projected at 354.5 million, accounts for all of the change.  

Brazil soybean production is forecast at 68.5 million tons, down 3.5 million tons from last  month due to lower projected yields resulting from hot, dry conditions in the southern states.  

Argentina soybean production is reduced 1.5 million tons to 46.5 million.  Despite improved weather in recent weeks in much of the country, lower yields are projected due to continued warm, dry weather through February in northeastern growing areas.  Paraguay soybean production is also reduced this month due to the effects of drought.  With precipitation for November through February at the lowest level in over 25 years, soybean production is WASDE-504-4  projected at 5 million tons, down 1.4 million from last month and 34 percent below early season expectations.  Other changes include lower rapeseed, peanut, and sunflower seed production for India, increased cottonseed production for Brazil, and increased sunflower seed production for Argentina.  

Global oilseed trade for 2011/12 is projected at 108.4 million tons, down 2.1 million mainly effecting reduced soybean trade.  Lower soybean exports are forecast for Brazil and Paraguay.  Soybean imports are reduced for China, EU-27, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan.  China soybean imports are reduced 0.5 million tons to 55 million.  Global oilseed ending stocks are projected at 67.8 million tons, down 3.4 million from last month.  Reduced soybean stocks in Brazil and Argentina account for most of the change. 

SUGAR:  Projected U.S. sugar supply for fiscal year 2011/12 is increased 381,000 tons, raw value, from last month, due to higher imports and production.  Florida cane sugar production is increased 30,000 tons based on processors= production projections reported in Sweetener Market Data.  Imports are increased 351,000 tons, with a 301,000-ton increase from Mexico and a 50,000-ton increase in re-export imports. Total use is increased 210,000 tons, in line with higher deliveries reported for October-December 2011 in Sweetener Market Data. 

For Mexico, updated data for 2010/11 show lower use and higher ending stocks, compared with last month.  For 2011/12, Mexico=s projected domestic use is lowered, commensurate with the change in 2010/11.  Imports of sugar are increased to reflect entries during October to 

January 2011/12.  With higher projected supplies and lower domestic use and ending stocks, exports are raised. 

LIVESTOCK, POULTRY, AND DAIRY:  The 2012 forecast of total red meat and poultry production is raised from last month as higher broiler and turkey production is expected to more than offset lower forecast beef production.  The pork production forecast is unchanged. 

The broiler production forecast is raised for the first half of the year based on January production data and stronger forecast prices.  Beef production is lowered from last month. 

Steer and heifer slaughter is forecast lower, but is partly offset by higher expected cow slaughter.   Early year carcass weights are raised due to mild weather in much of the country.  

Turkey production is forecast higher as higher prices are expected to encourage a more rapid expansion.  Egg production is lowered slightly for 2012 as prices are forecast lower.  Poultry and egg production for 2011 is adjusted to reflect revisions in production data.  The beef export forecast for 2012 is unchanged but imports are raised.  Pork exports are raised from last month based on the strength of December export data.  The broiler export forecast is unchanged from last month.  Changes in estimates for 2011 trade reflect December data. 

Cattle prices for 2012 are raised from last month, reflecting tightening supplies of fed cattle.   Hog price forecasts are unchanged from last month.  Broiler and turkey price forecasts are raised as current prices have strengthened.  Egg price forecasts are reduced on lower-than expected early year prices. 

The milk production forecast for 2012 is raised.  Milk cow numbers are raised as herds are increasing more rapidly than expected.  Although herds are expected to decline from 2011 in the second half of the year, the rate will be less than previously expected.  Mild weather in the WASDE-504-5 early part of the year is also supporting higher levels of milk production.  Import and export forecasts are unchanged.  Changes in 2011 estimates of supply and use reflect revised annual stocks data and December trade data. 

With higher forecast 2012 milk production, prices for cheese, butter, nonfat dry milk, and whey are lowered.  As a result, both Class III and Class IV price forecasts are reduced from last month.  The all milk price for 2012 is lowered to $17.60-$18.20 per cwt. 

COTTON:  The 2011/12 U.S. cotton supply and demand estimates include revisions to domestic mill use and ending stocks.  Estimated mill use is reduced 100,000 bales from last month, reflecting activity to date.  With beginning stocks, production, and exports unchanged, ending stocks are raised to 3.9 million bales.  The forecast range for the average price received by producers of 88 to 93 cents per pound is raised one cent on the lower end. 

The 2011/12 world cotton supply and demand estimates reflect higher supplies and lower consumption, resulting in an increase of nearly 1.6 million bales in forecast global ending stocks.  Beginning stocks are raised mainly in Brazil and Egypt, while production is raised in Brazil and Pakistan, but lowered in Australia.  Forecast consumption is reduced for China, Brazil, Egypt, and others, but is raised for South Korea.  World trade is estimated nearly 4 percent above last month, as India government sources have reported sharply higher exports to date this season than were estimated previously.  The revised India export forecast of 7.75 million bales assumes that the ban on further exports announced March 5, 2012, remains in place.  Forecast world imports are raised 1.35 million bales, due mainly to a 1.5-million-bale increase in imports by China, where nearly 40 percent of domestic production has been placed  in the government reserve.  Based on these revisions, China’s ending stocks are now projected at just over 20.0 million bales.         

United States Department of Agriculture

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